- Answering your questions on Week 2 (June 2015)
- Summary of our second maritime archaeology Tweetchat (February 2016)
Explore further – extended reading
This page contains many links to articles and videos about maritime archaeology and recent research and discoveries. There is no expectation that you will read (or watch) all of the links that have been listed. These items are not essential to the course, but we are aware that many learners are keen to develop their knowledge in specific areas. We would recommend that you dip into this step when you have time.
The earliest seafarers
- The most primitive ancient ‘reed boats’ Article in TINA Maritime Archaeology Journal about reed boats by Osman Erkut. See p.72.
- ‘Byzantine iPad’ found in ancient shipwreck. News article from May 2014 by Rossella Lorenzi.
- The spread of people to Australia
The ancient Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
- Odysseus and the Sirens – the problem of the trireme. In this History Today article from 1969, A.F. Tilley explains how the Greeks propelled their boats.
- Ancient Greece: a world in evolution. Animated map with voice over about Greek trade routes.
- New international mission ready to explore Antikythera shipwreck. New article from July 2014 by Margarita Pournara.
- Roman naval power: raising the ram. In this History Today article from 2011, Ann Natanson explains how a series of archaeological discoveries off the coast of Sicily reveal how Rome turned a piece of lethal naval technology pioneered by its enemy, Carthage, to its own advantage.
- Ancient Roman shipwreck found in the Ligurian sea. Brief news article by Silvia Donati from July 2014.
- What’s inside a 2000 year old shipwreck-preserved Roman pill? Ancient Roman pills, preserved in sealed tin containers on the seafloor, may have been used as eye medicine by Joseph Stromberg, Smithsonian, January 7, 2013.
Mariners in the medieval world
- Viking technology and planning. Vikings might be thought of as marauding forces, but their technology and knowledge was extraordinary. It was their smarts, not their muscles, which made them successful. Video presented by Dr Patrick Wallace, National Museum of Ireland. (19:10)
- The Volga Vikings. 45 minute podcast from In Our Time where Melvyn Bragg and his guests discuss the Volga Vikings. Between the 8th and the 10th centuries AD, fierce Scandinavian warriors raided and then settled large swathes of Europe, particularly Britain, Ireland and parts of Northern France. These were the Vikings, and their story is well known today. far fewer people realise that groups of Norsemen also travelled east. These Volga Vikings also known as the Rus, crossed the Baltic into present-day Russia and the Ukraine and funded settlements there. They traded commodities including furs and slaves for Islamic silver, and penetrated so far east as to reach Baghdad. Their activities were documented by Arab scholars: one Ahmadi ibn Fadlan, recorded that the Volga Vikings he met were perfect physical specimens but also “the filthiest of God’s creatures”. Through trade and culture they brought West and East into regular contact; their story sheds light on both Scandinavian and early Islamic history.
- Royal Museums Greenwich Vikings resources. This set of resources has been written for teachers.
- Skuldelev ships. An article in Archaeology by James P. Delgado from March 2013.
- We call them Vikings. Two touring exhibitions about the legendary Vikings. The first exhibition is currently on tour in North America; the second exhibition is currently touring in Europe.
- Longship sheds light on Merseyside’s Viking history. BBC News article by Tom Mullen from July 2014.
- 4,500 year old boat among Viking artifacts hoard discovered in Galway News article by Jane Walsh for IrishCentral from June 2014.
- Mary Rose and Vasa.. An article in Archaeology by James P. Delgado.
- The raising of the Mary Rose. In this 2007 History Today article, David Childs argues that Mary Rose the Tudor battleship which was raised from the depths in 1982, represented the beginning of British naval greatness.
- Alexander McKee, the man who found the Mary Rose remembered in bust. The man behind the raising of the Mary Rose has a permanent place on the ship – decades after defying his doubters. New article from April 2014.
- Mary Rose at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard Some FutureLearners may wish to visit Mary Rose at Portsmouth Historic Dockyard.
- Archaeological excavations of Yuan dynasty’s sunken ship completed. Six photographs showing archaeological excavations of a sunken ship in Chaotang river of Ningbo City, Zhejiang province. News item from July 2014.
- Sea stallion from Glendalough Watch a video about the Viking ship replica’s construction and first voyage. (3:03)
- Searching for Ribault’s shipwrecks. The search is on for what could be the oldest French shipwreck in the New World.
- Explorer believes he’s found great lakes’ oldest shipwreck. Short news article from July 2014, about Steve Libert’s search for Le Griffon.
- Poole Swash Channel Wreck: Artefacts go on show. BBC news article from July 2014, including close up photographs of some of the artefacts that are on display.
- Shipwreck excavation may explain how 17th-century warship blew itself up. News article from The Guardian about how Cotswold Archaeology and local divers hope to solve the mystery of how the warship London sank off Southend. July 2014.
In 1996, The History Channel ran a documentary series called “The Great Ships”, which featured an episode on “The Viking Ships” (and another on “The Pirate Ships”). Many key maritime archeologists contributed to the series, so if you can obtain a copy, it is worth watching.
Global seafaring the Age of Sail
- ‘They live by Trade’: Britain’s global trade in the Great Days of Sail. 1 hour long video lecture by Dr John Mcaleer.
- Execution of Captain Kidd by Richard Cavendish in History Today. 2001 article in which Richard Cavendish recalls the death of the pirate William Kidd, executed on May 23rd, 1701.
- Pirate Shipwrecks of Port Royal. Browse to page 21 to read this article.
- Book review: ‘Finding Longitude’ by Richard Dunn & Rebekah Higgitt. Detailed book review.
- Clip from BBC’s Coast on solving longitude. Mark Horton investigates how Britain went about solving the big navigational question. (4:04).
- 200-year-old bottle of seltzer found in shipwreck. Short news article from July 2014 by Rossella Lorenzi about a discovery off Gdansk, Poland.
- Shipwrecks of Lake Michigan. News article from June 2014 by Heather Augustyn about how this winter’s storms have revealed previously undiscovered shipwrecks on the shores of Lake Michigan.
- The only remaining remnant from Napoleon’s ship. This lightning rod may have protected Napoleon and his crew from nature, but it couldn’t protect them from the British. (2:03)
- Canada releases pictures of most northerly shipwreck. News item from The Guardian from April 2014 about the three-masted merchant ship Breadalbane which sank in 1853.
- 173 year old whaling ship returns to save whales. National Geographic video. (2:35)
- HMS Erebus: Canadian Shipwreck Identified as Sir John Franklin’s Long-Lost Flagship
- Reconstructing famous ships. This BBC website by Barrie Andrian is from 2005. It includes information about a variety of reconstructed ships
- Imperial identity in Port Towns: a spotlight on Southampton and Liverpool, 1900
- Three news stories relating to the sale of a collection of over 1700 photographs of shipwrecks on the coast of Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly:
- History’s 10 greatest wrecks… according to Archaeology Many of the wrecks described in this article are covered in this course. Do you agree with the list?
- Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The shipwrecks of Thunder Bay constitute a microcosm of the Great Lakes commercial shipping industry spanning the last two hundred years. The collection reflects transitions in ship architecture and construction, from wooden schooners to early steel-hulled steamers, as well as several unusual vessel types.
© University of Southampton, 2015
Explore further – extended reading [Advanced]
The articles and videos in this section are at a more advanced level or are significantly longer than the previous section. As before, there is no expectation that you will read or watch all of the items.
The earliest seafarers
- When did humans come to the Americas? Recent scientific findings date their arrival earlier than ever thought, sparking hot debate among archaeologists by Guy Gugliotta, Smithsonian Magazine, February 2013.
- Indians made it to Australia more than 4000 years before the British Evidence of substantial gene flow between Australian and Indian populations around 4,000 years ago refutes beliefs that Australia was an isolated continent before Europeans arrived by Rachel Nuwer, Smithsonian, January 15, 2013.
- High Precision U/Th Dating of First Polynesian Settlement Open Access article on PLOSone by David Burley, Marshall I. Weisler & Jian-xin Zhao.
- Archaeological Support for the Three-Stage Expansion of Modern Humans across Northeastern Eurasia and into the Americas Open Access article from August 2010 on PLOSone by Marcus J. Hamilton & Briggs Buchanan.
- A Three-Stage Colonization Model for the Peopling of the Americas Open Access article from February 2008 on PLOSone by Andrew Kitchen, Michael M. Miyamoto & Connie J. Mulligan.
- The people that time forgot: Flores find A National Geographic magazine article.
- Modelling Sahul colonization: first approximation A poster presentation.
The ancient Mediterranean and Indian Ocean
- The Sea Peoples, from Cuneiform Tablets to Carbon Dating Open Access article from June 2011on PLOSone by David Kaniewski et al.
- The INA Annual 2008. This Annual includes a number of articles relating to the Phoenicians, which may be of interest to you.
- If you are interested in what was happening elsewhere in the world, you may want to read Boat burials in Scandinavia by Esther Unterweger
Mariners in the medieval world
- The Vikings’ Bad Boy Reputation is back with a vengeance. A major new exhibition is reviving the Norse seafarers’ iconic image as rampagers and pillagers by Franz Lidz in Smithsonian Magazine, March 2014.
- A Viking mystery. Beneath Oxford University, archaeologists have uncovered a medieval city that altered the course of English history by David Keys Smithsonian Magazine, October 2010.
- Raiders or traders? A replica Viking vessel sailing the North Sea has helped archaeologists figure out what the stalwart Norsemen were really up to by Andrew Curry in Smithsonian Magazine, July 2008
- Viking Age iconography and the square sail. Browse to page 8 to read this article.
- 1295: The year of the galleys. Hour-long lecture by Dr. Ian Friel for Gresham College in October 2013.
- When Portugal ruled the seas. The country’s global adventurism in the 16th century linked continents and cultures as never before, as a new exhibition makes clear by David Zax, Smithsonian Magazine, September 2007
- Sugar masters in a New World. Sevilla la Nueva, the first European settlement in Jamaica, is home to the bittersweet story of the beginning of the Caribbean sugar trade by Heather Pringle, Smithsonian, January 12, 2010.
- Alfred W. Crosby on the Columbian exchange. The historian discusses the ecological impact of Columbus’ landing in 1492 on both the Old World and the New World by Megan Gambino , Smithsonian, October 4, 2011.
- The Waldseemueller map: charting the New World. Two obscure 16th-century German scholars named the American continent and changed the way people thought about the world by Toby Lester, Smithsonian Magazine, December 2009.
- The Gresham Ship: An Armed Elizabethan Merchantman recovered from the Thames 47 minute long downloadable lecture by Dr Gustav Milne at Gresham College in May 2014.
- Elizabethan merchant ships and shipbuilding. Elizabeth’s galleons and other warships have attracted much attention, but a strong and diverse shipbuilding capability and merchant fleet were the foundations of Tudor seapower. This hour-long lecture by Dr Ian Friel not only covers the technological, organisational, economic and operational side of ships and shipbuilding, but also looks at the human realities of seafaring life in the period.
Global seafaring in the Age of Sail
- The last days of Blackbeard. An exclusive account of the final raid and political maneuvers of history’s most notorious pirate by Colin Woodard in Smithsonian Magazine February 2014.
- Did archaeologists uncover Blackbeard’s treasure? Cannons. Gold dust. Turtle bones. For archaeologists researching the notorious pirate’s flagship, every clue is priceless by Abigail Tucker, Smithsonian Magazine, March 2011.
- For the first time in 93 years, a 19th century whaling ship sets sail. Built in 1841, the Charles W. Morgan is plying the waters off New England this summer by Constance Bond, Smithsonian, May 15, 2014.
- The Greenlanders – Arctic whaleships and whalers. From 1750 to the early 20th century, fleets of ‘Greenlanders’ – specially strengthened sailing ships – headed north each spring from Britain to the ice-filled Arctic seas between Canada, Greenland and Spitsbergen. Their business was whaling, their purpose to bring home oil and whalebone – raw materials for Britain’s growing industries. Arctic whaling involved more than 9000 voyages from 35 British ports: Rotherhith’s ‘Greenland Dock’ is a reminder that London was a prominent whaling port. Each voyage involved dangers unique to the trade, demanding extraordinary measures of skills and seamanship. Dr Stonehouse tells of the ships, the men, and the profits and losses of a long-forgotten industry in this 51 minute long lecture.
- The hunt for the lost ships of the Franklin expedition from Canadian Geographic. This is a detailed website with lots of information.
- The birth and death of a dock in History Today by R.B. Oram. Article on Wapping Dock from 1968.
- The Dutch East Indies Company – The First 100 Years. An hour-long lecture by Dr Thomas Crump. In the first hundred years, by facing off all its European rivals – where necessary by force of arms – the company brought unprecedented wealth to the Netherlands.
- The Dutch East Indies Company – The Second 100 Years. This hour-long lecture focuses on the VOC’s second hundred years and will explain how it slowly lost out on almost everything it had gained, to become bankrupt by the end of the 18th century – ending a remarkable period in the history of European colonialism. (Transcript available).
- Global origins of seafaring by Helen Farr.
- Seafaring as social action by Helen Farr.
- In Response to Pedersen’s ‘A Clench‐Fastened Boat In Kerala’: a Revealing Boat Narrative Not a ‘New’ Type of Boat by Jesse Ransley.
- Maritime Technological Change in the Ancient World: The invention of the lateen sail. Volume One by Julian Whitewright.
- Maritime Technological Change in the Ancient World: The invention of the lateen sail. Volume Two by Julian Whitewright.
- The Potential Performance of Ancient Mediterranean Sailing Rigs by Julian Whitewright.
- The Mediterranean Lateen Sail in Late Antiquity by Julian Whitewright.
- A Roman Type IVB Wooden Anchor Found in the Corfu Channel, Albania by Peter B. Campbell.
- Roman rigging material from the Red Sea port of Myos Hormos by Julian Whitewright.
- Tracing Technology: The material culture of maritime technology in the Ancient Mediterranean and Contemporary Indian Ocean by Julian Whitewright.
- Sailing with the Mu’allim: The technical practice of sailing in the Medieval Red Sea by Julian Whitewright.
- Early Islamic Maritime Technology by Julian Whitewright.
- The Archaeology and History of the Flower of Ugie, wrecked 1852 in the Eastern Solent edited by Julian Whitewright and Julie Satchell.
- The Development of Confederate Ship Construction: An Archaeological and Historical Investigation of Confederate Ironclads Neuse and Jackson by Peter B. Campbell.
© University of Southampton, 2015